What is Your Earliest Memory Cognition Discussion Questions
For the following questions just answer those questions in your own words.
1. What’s your earliest memory? Most adults have a hard time remembering events in their lives before the age of about 3. It’s a phenomenon called “infantile amnesia”. Three-year olds are pretty smart, though and we know they learn very well, so why is there is this seeming lack of episodic memory for our early years? Given what you know about episodic memory – what do you think might cause this phenomenon?
- 2. Theories of concepts like the prototype theory suggest that we build an abstract summary representation out of our repeated encounters with exemplars from a category. That would seem to suggest that everybody’s prototypes should be somewhat different. If so, how is it that across cultures, we seem to arrive at similar groupings of things in the world (birds vs. fish vs. insects)? Can you think of an example where this is not true?
Cognitive Psychology In and Out of the Laboratory Edition 6 2 To my kids, Tim and Kimmie, for giving meaning and purpose to my life; to my dogs, Tandy, Bussey, Eskie, Flit, Tackle, Lizzy, Tryker, and Nimo, for leavening that life with lightheartedness; and to my
fabulous Carleton students, past, present, and future, for consistently keeping me on my toes. 3 Cognitive Psychology In and Out of the Laboratory Edition 6 Kathleen M. Galotti Carleton College 4 FOR INFORMATION: SAGE Publications, Inc. 2455 Teller Road Thousand Oaks, California 91320 E-mail: email@example.com SAGE Publications Ltd. 1 Oliver’s Yard 55 City Road London EC1Y 1SP United Kingdom SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd. B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area Mathura Road, New Delhi 110 044 India SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte. Ltd. 3 Church Street #10-04 Samsung Hub Singapore 049483 Copyright © 2018 by SAGE Publications, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. 5 Acknowledgment: SAGE Publishing thanks Robert Neffson for his kind permission to reproduce his art on the cover and in the interior of this book. Printed in the United States of America Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Galotti, Kathleen M., 1957- author. Title: Cognitive psychology in and out of the laboratory / Kathleen M. Galotti, Carleton College. Description: 6th edition. | Thousand Oaks, CA : SAGE, 2018.
Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2017011208 | ISBN 9781506351568 (hardcover : alk. paper) Subjects: LCSH: Cognitive psychology. | Cognition. Classification: LCC BF201 .G35 2018 | DDC 153—dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2017011208 This book is printed on acid-free paper. Editorial Director: Reid Hester Acquisitions Editor: Abbie Rickard Senior Editorial Development Manager: Eve Oettinger Content Development Editor: Morgan Shannon Editorial Assistant: Jennifer Cline Production Editor: Jane Haenel Copy Editor: D. J. Peck Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd. Proofreader: Tricia Currie-Knight Interior and Cover Designer: Janet Kiesel Marketing Manager: Katherine Hepburn 6 Brief Contents Preface About the Author Chapter 1 Cognitive Psychology: History, Methods, and Paradigms Chapter 2 The Brain: An Overview of Structure and Function Chapter 3 Perception: Recognizing Patterns and Objects Chapter 4 Attention: Deploying Cognitive Resources Chapter 5 Working Memory: Forming and Using New Memory Traces Chapter 6 Retrieving Memories From Long-Term Storage Chapter 7 The Reconstructive Nature of Memory Chapter 8 Knowledge Representation: Storing and Organizing Information in Long-Term Memory Chapter 9 Visual Imagery and Spatial Cognition Chapter 10 Language Chapter 11 Thinking and Problem Solving Chapter 12 Reasoning and Decision Making Chapter 13 Cognitive Development Through Adolescence Chapter 14 Individual Differences in Cognition Chapter 15 Cognition in Cross-Cultural Perspective Glossary References Author Index Subject Index 7 Detailed Contents Preface About the Author Chapter 1 • Cognitive Psychology: History, Methods, and Paradigms Setting the Stage Influences on the Study of Cognition Structuralism Functionalism Behaviorism Gestalt Psychology The Study of Individual Differences The “Cognitive Revolution” and the Birth of Cognitive Science General Points Research Methods in Cognitive Psychology Experiments and Quasi-Experiments Naturalistic Observation Controlled Observation and Clinical Interviews Introspection Investigations of Neural Underpinnings General Points Paradigms of Cognitive Psychology The Information-Processing Approach The Connectionist Approach The Evolutionary Approach The Ecological Approach and Embodied Cognition Cognitive Neuroscience General Points Summary Review Questions Key Terms SAGE edge
Important information for writing discussion questions and participation
Welcome to class
Hello class and welcome to the class and I will be your instructor for this course. This is a -week course and requires a lot of time commitment, organization, and a high level of dedication. Please use the class syllabus to guide you through all the assignments required for the course. I have also attached the classroom policies to this announcement to know your expectations for this course. Please review this document carefully and ask me any questions if you do. You could email me at any time or send me a message via the “message” icon in halo if you need to contact me. I check my email regularly, so you should get a response within 24 hours. If you have not heard from me within 24 hours and need to contact me urgently, please send a follow up text to
I strongly encourage that you do not wait until the very last minute to complete your assignments. Your assignments in weeks 4 and 5 require early planning as you would need to present a teaching plan and interview a community health provider. I advise you look at the requirements for these assignments at the beginning of the course and plan accordingly. I have posted the YouTube link that explains all the class assignments in detail. It is required that you watch this 32-minute video as the assignments from week 3 through 5 require that you follow the instructions to the letter to succeed. Failure to complete these assignments according to instructions might lead to a zero. After watching the video, please schedule a one-on-one with me to discuss your topic for your project by the second week of class. Use this link to schedule a 15-minute session. Please, call me at the time of your appointment on my number. Please note that I will NOT call you.
Please, be advised I do NOT accept any assignments by email. If you are having technical issues with uploading an assignment, contact the technical department and inform me of the issue. If you have any issues that would prevent you from getting your assignments to me by the deadline, please inform me to request a possible extension. Note that working fulltime or overtime is no excuse for late assignments. There is a 5%-point deduction for every day your assignment is late. This only applies to approved extensions. Late assignments will not be accepted.
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Plagiarism is highly prohibited. Please ensure you are citing your sources correctly using APA 7th edition. All assignments including discussion posts should be formatted in APA with the appropriate spacing, font, margin, and indents. Any papers not well formatted would be returned back to you, hence, I advise you review APA formatting style. I have attached a sample paper in APA format and will also post sample discussion responses in subsequent announcements.
Your initial discussion post should be a minimum of 200 words and response posts should be a minimum of 150 words. Be advised that I grade based on quality and not necessarily the number of words you post. A minimum of TWO references should be used for your initial post. For your response post, you do not need references as personal experiences would count as response posts. If you however cite anything from the literature for your response post, it is required that you cite your reference. You should include a minimum of THREE references for papers in this course. Please note that references should be no more than 5 years old except recommended as a resource for the class. Furthermore, for each discussion board question, you need ONE initial substantive response and TWO substantive responses to either your classmates or your instructor for a total of THREE responses. There are TWO discussion questions each week, hence, you need a total minimum of SIX discussion posts for each week. I usually post a discussion question each week. You could also respond to these as it would count towards your required SIX discussion posts for the week.
I understand this is a lot of information to cover in 5 weeks, however, the Bible says in Philippians 4:13 that we can do all things through Christ that strengthens us. Even in times like this, we are encouraged by God’s word that we have that ability in us to succeed with His strength. I pray that each and every one of you receives strength for this course and life generally as we navigate through this pandemic that is shaking our world today. Relax and enjoy the course!
Please read through the following information on writing a Discussion question response and participation posts.
Contact me if you have any questions.
Important information on Writing a Discussion Question
- Your response needs to be a minimum of 150 words (not including your list of references)
- There needs to be at least TWO references with ONE being a peer reviewed professional journal article.
- Include in-text citations in your response
- Do not include quotes—instead summarize and paraphrase the information
- Follow APA-7th edition
- Points will be deducted if the above is not followed
Participation –replies to your classmates or instructor
- A minimum of 6 responses per week, on at least 3 days of the week.
- Each response needs at least ONE reference with citations—best if it is a peer reviewed journal article
- Each response needs to be at least 75 words in length (does not include your list of references)
- Responses need to be substantive by bringing information to the discussion or further enhance the discussion. Responses of “I agree” or “great post” does not count for the word count.
- Follow APA 7th edition
- Points will be deducted if the above is not followed
- Remember to use and follow APA-7th edition for all weekly assignments, discussion questions, and participation points.
- Here are some helpful links
- The is a great resource