UNAHVS Right To Unproven Drugs Discussion
Write a 2-3 page paper that explains and defends your view on the issue of whether or not patients with no other treatment options have a moral right to unproven drugs.
Many doctors, nurses, medical technicians, and other health care workers are involved in medical research. The field of medicine is not limited to the direct treatment of patients but also involves the continued expansion of medical research. A large part of such research is clinical research, which puts patients into the role of experimental subjects. This raises a number of challenging questions for health care ethics, many of which follow from the fact that physicians, nurses, and others involved in clinical research have a dual role. As researchers, they are committed to generating new knowledge about diseases, developing new treatments and drug therapies, and, in general, helping to improve the welfare of human beings by eliminating or controlling diseases and increasing longevity. However, researchers involved in clinical research must also be committed to the highest quality care for individual patients taking part in research studies. This assessment explores some of the ethical issues that clinical research raises and some of the safeguards in place to protect the interests of patients involved in research.
DEMONSTRATION OF PROFICIENCY
By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and assessment criteria:
Competency 1: Articulate ethical issues in health care.
Explain how the principle of informed consent is relevant to these issues.
Explain the costs and benefits of offering unapproved experimental drugs to patients.
Competency 2: Apply sound ethical thinking related to a health care issue.
Identify relevant ethical theories and moral principles.
Articulate arguments using examples for and against offering pre-approved drugs to wider pools of patients.
Competency 5: Communicate in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and respectful of the diversity, dignity, and integrity of others and is consistent with health care professionals.
Exhibit proficiency in clear and effective academic writing skills.
When a new drug is undergoing clinical trials to be approved for treatment, it must pass through a number of distinct phases of testing. These phases require rigorous study and evidence to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of new treatments. Passing through these phases and achieving approval takes many years for some trials. Before approval, patients not part of a clinical trial have limited or no access to experimental drugs, even though these drugs could be helpful and potentially save their lives. There are various groups pushing for greater patient access to drugs still in the experimental stage. In recent years, the FDA has made it somewhat easier to receive treatment with experimental drugs, but according to advocacy groups there are still too many restrictions (Munson, 2014).This leads to a potential quandary when early stages of research on a drug sometimes suggest that the drug could be effective in treating a certain disease. On one hand, offering easier access to early stage trial drugs could help individuals suffering with a medical condition. However, on the other hand, making early access to experimental drugs easier could limit the pool of patients available to participate in clinical trials that establish whether or not the drug is truly effective and safe. This is an important consideration, as the vast majority of experimental drugs turn out to be completely ineffective or could have very dangerous side effects that will only show up over time and across a wider test population.When completing this assessment, it is important to keep in mind the ethical arguments that are relevant to both views regarding the right to experimental drugs. It may be useful to review the suggested resources and conduct additional independent research while you are planning your assessment submission.
Do patients with no other treatment options have a moral right to unproven drugs? Write a paper that explains and defends your view on this issue. In addition to reviewing the suggested resources, you are encouraged to locate additional resources in the Capella library, your public library, or authoritative online sites to provide additional support for your viewpoint. Be sure to weave and cite the resources throughout your work. In your paper, address the following points:
Identify relevant ethical theories and moral principles.
Explain how the principle of informed consent is relevant to the issue.
Explain the costs and benefits of making unproven, unapproved experimental drugs widely available to patients. Consider the costs and benefits not only to the individual patients who take these drugs but also potential costs and benefits to other patients.
Explain arguments using examples for and against offering pre-approved drugs to wider pools of patients.
Support your view using ethical theories or moral principles (or both) that you find most relevant to the issue.
Written communication: Written communication is free of errors that detract from the overall message.
APA formatting: Resources and citations are formatted according to current APA style and formatting guidelines.
Length: 2–3 typed, double-spaced pages.
Font and font size: Times New Roman, 12 point.
Munson, R. (2014). Intervention and reflection: Basic issues in bioethics (concise ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth.
You must proofread your paper. But do not strictly rely on your computer’s spell-checker and grammar-checker; failure to do so indicates a lack of effort on your part and you can expect your grade to suffer accordingly. Papers with numerous misspelled words and grammatical mistakes will be penalized. Read over your paper – in silence and then aloud – before handing it in and make corrections as necessary. Often it is advantageous to have a friend proofread your paper for obvious errors. Handwritten corrections are preferable to uncorrected mistakes.
Use a standard 10 to 12 point (10 to 12 characters per inch) typeface. Smaller or compressed type and papers with small margins or single-spacing are hard to read. It is better to let your essay run over the recommended number of pages than to try to compress it into fewer pages.
Likewise, large type, large margins, large indentations, triple-spacing, increased leading (space between lines), increased kerning (space between letters), and any other such attempts at “padding” to increase the length of a paper are unacceptable, wasteful of trees, and will not fool your professor.
The paper must be neatly formatted, double-spaced with a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, and sides of each page. When submitting hard copy, be sure to use white paper and print out using dark ink. If it is hard to read your essay, it will also be hard to follow your argument.
The community health nurses practice is population-focused and, therefore, requires appropriate skills. One of the skills is community engagement and organizing. The community health nurse has to practice in collaboration with other agencies as equal partners (Dieckmann, 2021). Community empowerment is among the key goals of community health nursing. Through the empowerment, communities become more engaged in the decision-making process through an active participation approach. According to Melo and Alves (2019), there are nine domains that facilitate community empowerment. These domains include community participation, problem assessment capacities, local leadership, organizational structure, resource mobilization, links to others, ability to ask why, program management, and relationship with outside agents. All these domains form part of community empowerment. Through community empowerment, communities are able to actively participate in health promotion.
Resource mobilization is among the domains that are critical in examining the existence of resources. The first step in resource mobilization is an assessment of the existing resources. The assessment is critical in helping determine which resources are available and any existing gaps that require to be addressed. Based on this assessment, it is possible for the community health nurse to help raise the needed resources that are non-existent within the community. The resource assessment further helps the community health nurse effectively determine how the resources will be able to fit within the designed community health strategies. For example, the existence of religious leaders means that the community health nurse can partner with these leaders in helping reach out to the community members and raise awareness on the need for behavioral changes for health promotion. In the absence of such leader, the nurse might have to look for other community leaders or personalities that can appeal to the community.
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