Select one informatics theory from the areas of Communication Theories, Change Theories, or Human Factors.

Select one informatics theory from the areas of Communication Theories, Change Theories, or Human Factors.

Select one informatics theory from the areas of Communication Theories, Change Theories, or Human Factors. Discuss how the application of the theory you select can guide the use of technology in advanced practice. What strengths does the theory possess that would make it useful to the DNP-prepared nurse? What weaknesses does the theory present that might prevent its use?


Human Factors Theories

The study of human factor theory focuses on human interaction with equipment within an organization with the goal of increasing safety and satisfaction. Example: Theories on accident causation demonstrate that accidents can be caused by chains of human errors. Factors that can lead to human errors include lack of experience on how to do the job (Chung  & Williamson, 2018).


Chung, A. Z. Q., Williamson, A. (2018). Theory versus practice in the human factors and ergonomics discipline: Trends in journal publications from 1960 to 2010 Academic Journal In Applied Ergonomics. 66:41-51. DOI: 10.1016/j.apergo.2017.07.003,



Unfreezing, moving or transitioning, and refreezing are the three processes in Kurt Lewin’s Theory of Planned Change. The first stage, unfreezing, involves acknowledging that change is required and that the equilibrium will be disrupted (Chen, 2021). The initial stage is the most difficult and time-consuming because restraining factors might prevent the change from progressing (Chen, 2021). A great example would be introducing the electronic health record. During the first stage, the old ways such as paper charge would be let go. Unfreezing the necessity for the change to be discussed in dialogues and through educational sessions. The second phase is moving or transitioning. This phase necessitates a clear action plan and may create anxiety and worry (Chen, 2021). During this phase, it would be critical to work with the stakeholders (Daly, 2017). For instance, if a facility were to transition to electronic health records versus paper charting, this step is crucial as it enables the analysis of the present situation, new structures, and other processes that are put into place to attain the desired outcome (Daly, 2017).

The last stage is refreezing, during which it is critical to reinforce and incorporate the change while also conducting an efficacy audit (Daly, 2017). The change is stabilized at this point, and a new equilibrium is established (Chen, 2021). In other words, the changes made are frozen in place and become part of the normal workflow. One of the strengths of Lewin’s change model is that it is simple for others to understand. Unfreezing, transition and refreezing are easy steps to follow when implementing a change within an organization (Daly, 2017). Although its simplicity is its strength, it can also be a downfall. Some changes need a more detailed process other than just unfreezing, transitioning, and refreezing (Chen, 2021).


Chen, P. (2021). A new horizon: Transitioning from an experienced to novice nurse. Journal of Radiology Nursing40(4), 368–369. 


Daly, S. (2017). Development and implementation of person-centered nursing documentation. International Journal of Integrated Care (IJIC)17, 1–3.


Thank you for your insightful post. The healthcare system is always changing and evolving. Change can be difficult because it contradicts humans’ basic need for a stable environment, and when you’re used to one, you don’t want to start a new one. The introduction of New Public Management (NPM) has challenged traditional professional dominance by introducing a managerialism logic into health care, i.e. work should be organized and controlled by managers to achieve organizational goals of cost-effective and efficient health care. Clinicians are expected to accurately document their work and participate in any advancement provided by the management team.


Rafferty AE, Jimmieson NL. Subjective perceptions of organizational change and employee resistance to change: direct and mediated relationships with employee well-being. Br J Manage. 2017;28:248–264. doi: 10.1111/1467-8551.12200. [] []


Very well done. I like the way you break down and apply Lewin’s Theory. Acknowledgment that changes need to happen, transitioning to the new technology, and stabilization of new technology. This theory is good and works to explain the change. In comparison to the Human Factor theory, the main thing to consider when implementing healthcare technology is to remember the people who actually use the programs/system. (Matthews & Proctor, 2021). In my experience as a nurse clinical and nonclinical, programs that have stakeholder support at the onset of change are most successful. Another factor when in the various stages is to ensure that staff that will be working with the change are instrumental from the beginning.


Matthews, S. D., & Proctor, M. D. (2021). Public Health Informatics, Human Factors and the End-Users. Health Services Research and Managerial Epidemiology


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