NRS 433 Topic 2 DQ 2 Compare the differences and similarities between two of the three types of qualitative studies and give an example of each

NRS 433 Topic 2 DQ 2 Compare the differences and similarities between two of the three types of qualitative studies and give an example of each

Green and Johnson define phenomenological research as “the study of what people have experienced throughout their lives.” It comprises conducting extensive interviews and discussions with a subject in attempt to comprehend a phenomenon that has occurred in their lives (Green & Johnson, 2018). Erolu and enol’s work is an example of phenomenological research. Data on student involvement, motivation, curriculums, and other aspects were collected from teachers who taught remotely during the COVID-19 epidemic. This study interviewed 12 instructors, and it was an excellent technique to acquire descriptions and experiences from each teacher (Erolu & enol, 2021).

Green and Johnson go on to describe grounded theory as a collection of knowledge obtained and processed through interviews or observation. It is portrayed as a means of understanding human actions within the framework of a phenomenon (Green & Johnson, 2018). Foji et alarticle .’s on persons with neurofibromatosis type 1 is an example of this. The article, which was written over the course of 15 months, outlines how they live and experience life. Individuals were able to explain their concerns, as well as how their current living condition affects their relief or enjoyment (Foji et al., 2022). One of the most helpful advantages of employing Grounded theory is its ability to explore something uncommon and construct a theory based on the evidence gathered (Chun et al., 2019).

Topic 2 DQ 2

Apr 11-15, 2022

The three tre phenomenological, grounded theory, and ethnographic research. Compare the differences and similarities between two of the three and give an example of each.

According to Green and Johnson, phenomenological research focuses on what people have experienced throughout their lives. It entails conducting in-depth interviews and conversations with a subject in order to comprehend a phenomenon that has occurred in their life (Green & Johnson, 2018). A study by Erolu and enol is an example of phenomenological research. Teachers who taught remotely during the COVID-19 pandemic were interviewed, and data on student participation, motivation, curriculums, and other factors were collected. This study included 12 teachers who were interviewed, and it was an effective way to collect descriptions and experiences from each teacher (Erolu & enol, 2021).

Green and Johnson go on to define grounded theory as a collection of information gathered through interviews or observation and then analyzed. It is portrayed as a method of comprehending human actions in the context of a phenomenon (Green & Johnson, 2018). An example of this can be found in Foji et alarticle .’s about people with neurofibromatosis type 1. The article, which was conducted over a 15-month period, discusses how they live and experience life. Individuals were able to express their difficulties and how their life situation affects their relief or happiness (Foji et al., 2022). One of the most advantageous aspects of using Grounded theory is that it can investigate something unusual and develop a theory based on the data collected (Chun et al., 2019).

Green and Johnson define ethnography as the study of a person’s culture through observation. Sometimes, in order to understand a culture, a researcher must immerse themselves in it (Green & Johnson, 2018). Montero-study Sieburth’s on migration populations is an example of ethnographic research. The study included cases from both the United States and the Netherlands, and it required a significant amount of participation from the researchers while working with vulnerable populations to collect qualitative data. She described this research method as potentially fraught with ethical quandaries due to the population’s vulnerability, as well as researchers’ need to avoid potentially unethical political or cultural practices (Montero-Sieburth, 2020).


Chun Tie, Y., Birks, M., & Francis, K. (2019). Grounded Theory Research: A design framework for novice researchers. SAGE Open Medicine7.

Eroğlu, M., & Şenol, C. (2021). Emergency remote education experiences of teachers during the COVID-19 pandemic: A phenomenological research. Shanlax International Journal of Education9(3), 161–172. 

Foji, S., Mohammadi, E., Sanagoo, A., & Jouybari, L. (2022). How do people with neurofibromatosis type 1 (the forgotten victims) live? A grounded theory study. Health Expectations25(2), 659–666. 

Montero-Sieburth, M. (2020). Ethical dilemmas and challenges in Ethnographic Migration Research. Qualitative Research Journal20(3), 281–291.

As nurses, we care for the whole person or patient, which is the concept of phenomenology. In nursing and phenomenology, we want to know the lived experience of the participant or patient. Personally, I feel that gaining a better understanding of patients or participants allows for better data acquisition. As a provider, I like to get to know the patient personally. For instance, I recently was completing a history on a 91-year-old lady who was on no prescription medications and only took a multivitamin. I asked her open questions in an effort for her to clarify how she is 91 years old with no significant medical history and no diagnosis requiring prescription medications. In addition, I asked her about her family history to see how their lived experiences kept them so healthy.  Nonetheless, phenomenology and nursing are similar in their focus on obtaining information to improve healthcare experiences for patients (Zahavi, n.d.).

Can you recount your use of phenomenology in nursing? If you can’t, are you able to think of an opportunity where you can use it in the future?

I have included a video that details phenomenology.


Zahavi, D. (n.d). How can phenomenology help nurses care for their patients?| Aeon Essays. Aeon. 

I believe I have used phenomenology in nursing while working in the public health nursing setting. Upon initial visit of maternal child health clients, there are several assessment questions that are phenomenology in nature. For example, the questionnaire asked how they felt or to share their experience upon learning that they were pregnant. If the client was a young teen mother, the questionnaire asked how her parents took the news and what the clients experiences were with the parental support from the time they learned of the pregnancy until the date of the interview. All of these answers were unique as every mother had her own interpretation of her pregnancy experience. Because Public Health Nursing utilized many community resources such as the WIC program and Department of Human Services, referrals depended on how these phenomenology questions were answered. Some clients required mental health referrals, diaper bank referrals, food bank referrals, educational referrals, and other community resources. My point is that phenomenological research in my experience with Public Health nursing provided the client individualized care by referring the mother to programs according to her needs. Phenomenological research “allows researchers to study how experiences, traditions, and culture shape ordinary, everyday practices” (Oerther, 2021). This was the essence of research formulated into public health’s Maternal Child Health question and assessments. Thank you, Jana


Ethnography studies groups of people and culture. When we consider those from non english speaking countries their culture is different. It is true in some cultures that looking at somebody’s face when speaking is disrespectful but in the USA it’s okay and encouraged. Culture differences should be considered when taking care of  patients from different cultures. Communication through verbal and nonverbal methods is determined through ethnographic research.

The culture of the nurses working in the medical unit is different from that of the nurse working in the ICU. Ethnographic research would be helpful in studying the behavior and culture of their unit to understand the pattern and behaviors of staff on those units. Nursing leadership can use grounded leadership research to collect data on safety of the units to prevent falls and infection to create policy to prevent these events. A combination of research techniques can be used together in the nursing profession. Nurses can study to express their experiences in the nursing profession.


Denzin N, Lincoln Y. The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousands Oaks, CA: Sage Publications; 2005.

Posted Date

Apr 16, 2022, 9:41 PM

Features of Qualitative Research

Setting: Natural environment

–patient rooms, patient homes, nursing units

Samples: Small groups or individuals

–patients, staff nurses on a unit

Data: texts, notes, interviews through observations

–memos, codes, themes

–no statistical tests

–text-based data

Interventions: None

What to look for: Interviews, open-ended questions, lived-experiences, research gathered through observation and interviews, coding


–responses are natural and unstructured

ethnography, biography, phenomenology, case study, grounded theory, case report, lived experience

Wanda Felder

Posted Date

Apr 16, 2022, 9:40 PM

Ethnography research studies groups of people and cultures. In nursing, ethnographic qualitative research can be utilized to better understand patient populations. Burnard and Naiyapatana (2004) reviewed how patient-nurse communication varies based on a patient’s cultural background. Think about patient-care for a non-English-speaking patient. Should their care be altered or lack the quality of care of patients who are English-speaking? In nursing, all patients should receive the same high-quality care no matter their background.

Burnard and Naiyapatana (2004) used ethnography to better understand Thai nursing, which allowed them to use coding to further investigate the culture of Thai nurses. Cultural differences are factors within in patient care. Burnard and Naiyapatana (2004) established that communication varies culturally. Depending on the immersion into the cultural nuances with ethnography, one might not garner the same results. Communication through volume and nonverbal methods were determined as differences through the ethnographic research (Burnard & Naiyapatana, 2004).


What are some cultural variations that you have which might cause misinterpretation in healthcare/nursing?


Burnard, P., & Naiyapatana, W. (2004). Culture and communication in Thai nursing: A report of an ethnographic study. International Journal of Nursing Studies41(7), 755–765.

Ethnography is a strategy for studying cultural behaviors. Ethnographers use demography to get a greater understanding of cultural behaviors and their causes for them. The researcher may become totally involved in the culture being researched. Participant views and key informant interviews are frequently used to collect data (Polit & Beck, 2017). The example of The findings of ethnographic research on foreign student adjustment is reported in this paper. The article suggests using ethnography to study the perspectives of tourists and migrants in order to generate a volume of data about the effects of cross-cultural interaction for these two groups. The goal of ethnographic research was to document the adjustment process of a group of international postgraduate students at a university in the south of England.

Phenomenology offers a method for scientists to better understand a person’s life and experiences. Researchers use this strategy to acquire a better knowledge of important living events. Typically, data is gathered through an assessment scale and talks with test subjects. When this approach is utilized, sample sizes are often low (Polit & Beck, 2017).

. Grounded theory is a method that allows academics to investigate issues relevant to nursing. The goal is to comprehend activities made in a certain region by individuals who are involved in carrying them out. Many intermediate, or shorter, practice-related nursing theories have resulted from this technique (Polit & Beck, 2017).

A  researcher, for example, may offer complex queries such as: why is this different from that? by comparing the experiences of two distinct persons who had a basis for comparison. What is the relation between these two? This technique is performed with each new interview or account until all have been evaluated with each other in numerous qualitative studies whose goal is to develop information about common themes and patterns within human experience. A grounded theory study of how persons with brain damage cope with the social attitudes they experience provides an excellent illustration of this process(sally T,2000).

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