NRS 429V Week 1 Discussion 2

NRS 429V Week 1 Discussion 2

Sister Callista Roy’s adaptive model of health focuses on a person’s ability to adjust to a change in their health situation. It necessitates a change in the individual’s lifestyle. The goal of this adaptation, which may occur on a physical or psychological level, is for the individual to be able to continue functioning in the face of change (Nursing Theories, 2012).

The model includes , with the new medical diagnosis disrupting the patient’s life. The coping process is surrounded by aspects such as physicality, self-concept, interdependence, and role function. The term “physical” refers to the symptoms of a disease or illness. How the patient responds to the new diagnoses is determined by their self-concept, which includes spiritual and psychological components. Any type of support structure, such as a family or a group of friends, is interdependent. Role function refers to how a new diagnosis affects a person’s role in the family or community. Once all of these human system modifications have been completed, the individual can progress (Grand Canyon University (Ed.), 2018).

Consider a patient who needs a double mastectomy after being diagnosed with breast cancer for the first time and is struggling with the self-concept component of the education process. The patient may be experiencing a change in body image and wish to seek counseling or assistance in contacting a plastic surgeon for breast reconstruction. Pain may also have an impact on the learning barrier. Non-pharmaceutical therapy and effective pain management will allow the patient to concentrate more on their studies. Because the patient may require assistance with daily living activities and household responsibilities, which corresponds to the role function, analyzing the interdependence factor and ensuring adequate family or caregiver support is also important. The patient’s role in the family, such as whether they have young children who require care. Teaching becomes more difficult when a patient is experiencing difficulties. When patients actively participate in the process, the outcomes are better.

Kizlik explained in the assigned reading, “How to Write Learning Objectives That Meet Demanding Behavioral Criteria,” that “learning objectives, behavioral objectives, instructional objectives, or performance objectives are terms that refer to descriptions of observable behavior or performance that are used to make judgments about learning.” How do health care providers create educational programs that clearly articulate objectives in order to engage both patients and families?


NRS 429V Week 1 Discussion 2

According to the family systems theory, a member of a family has to change its behaviors and influence everyone in the family to follow along and change to promote health and wellness. An example is a family member with a history of obesity decides to lose weight and creates a diet plan and exercise regimen and encourages the rest of the family to join him in the journey of losing weight. Behavioral changes when an individual decides to change for the better and act on it.

The family systems theory helps in teaching behavioral changes because once a family member is involved in the plan of care and already decides to take part in the process of helping to live a better lifestyle, it is much easier to influence the rest of the family.

According to the ebookHealth Promotion: Health & Wellness Across the Continuum, variables that affect the ability to learn are race, ethnicity, immigration status, disabilities, sex/gender/sexual orientation, environmental threats, poverty, access to health care, and lack of education can be barriers that affect a patient’s ability to learn and move forward with the behavioral changes.

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A patient’s readiness to learn to change their lifestyle for a better life improves the learning outcomes because once a patient understands the reasoning behind the need for the change, it is easier to change its bad habits to new habits and live a healthy lifestyle.


Grand Canyon University (Ed). (2018). Health promotion: Health & wellness across the continuum. Retrieved from


This is an outstanding response Ronald. I agree with it. Health conditions tend to emanate from intricate factors such as those advanced by social, economic, and political determinants. Health is determined by the manner in which societies are structured and how health policy agendas are influenced by the political nature in the society (Laverack, 2017). Health promotion interventions that address behavioral risks are capable of supporting policies to enhance health or uphold inequalities in a society. This is attributed to the fact that behavioral change models have insignificant impact on wider conditions that result in poor health. Therefore, any health promotion model intended to initiate behavioral changes should be adopted as a component of a winder, inclusive policy framework. Ensuring a comprehensive and multi-component health promotion model is appropriate in changing bad behaviors that can cause negative health effects (Laverack, 2017). Advancing health promotion model through a strong policy framework is crucial in giving people greater control over their lives instead of instructing them on what to do.


Laverack, G. (2017). The challenge of behaviour change and health promotion. Challenges, 8(2), 25.


programs that helps to set up healthy lifestyle behavior requires comprehensive planning. Theories and Models both include concepts and constructs. Health theories and behavior models helps to explain why individuals and communities behave the way they do.

Theories and models both include concepts and constructs. Concepts are the primary components of a model or theory. Constructs are components that have been created for use in specific model or theory. These terms are important to understand when discussing models and theories (Glanz, Rimer, &Lewis,2002).

Theories and models helps to understand the nature and understanding of the patients. In Tran theoretical model describes the process of how the behavior of individual changes, there are various factors that influence the behavior of patient.

These model includes five stages (Glanz, Rimer, &Lewis,2002;NCI, 2005)

Pre contemplation– In this stage the individual has no intention to change behavior within the next six months.

Contemplation- In this stage, an individual is considering a behavior change within the next six months.

Preparation– In this stage the individual takes some steps towards making a change doing so within the next 30 days.

Action– An individual reaches this stage once he/she has made a apparent behavior change and doing within next 30 days.

Maintenance– If behavior change last more than 6 months then moves in the final stage of maintenance.

Barriers that affect the patient’s ability to learn can be language, culture, beliefs, educational level of the patients, before set up the the plan for educating the patients nurse should assess the patient’s ability to learn and obstacles in the patient learning that can be face by the nurse.

Readiness to learn refers how patients in participating in the behavior change, patient should be ready physically, psychologically and cognitively engage in learning. Health status of the patient really affect the readiness to learn, in this patient is in pain or feeling weakness or fatigue may affect the readiness to learn. Nurse should always assess the learning style of the patient, patient’s environment such as loud noises, educational level, Nurse should always use the words as a Layman can understand, should avoid medical terms as much as possible.


Glanz, K., B. Rimer, ,& F. Lewis. (2002). Health behavior and health education. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. National Cancer Institute (2005). Theory at a glance guide for health promotion practice.


This is an excellent response, Pardeep, and I agree with the post. Behavioral change models are typically used as preventive measures to manage unhealthy lifestyle behaviors. The models aim to persuade people to live healthy lifestyles, use preventive health services, and take responsibility for their own health. Most health promotion models aimed at initiating behavioral changes are based on the assumption that sharing information can potentially aid in changing beliefs, behaviors, and attitudes. However, this idea has proven to be ineffective because it fails to take into account critical factors in the social environment that influence health. There is conflicting evidence regarding the effectiveness of health promotion models that influence behavioral changes, particularly single interventions that target a specific behavioral risk. As a result, the health promotion model should be implemented through a variety of strategies that include components such as empowering people to have control over their lifestyle choices, a behavioral change approach, and a strong policy framework that facilitates a supportive environment (Laverack, 2017).


Grand Canyon University (Ed). (2018). Health promotion: Health & wellness across the continuum. Retrieved from

Nursing Theories. (2012). Models of prevention. Retrieved from model


Thank for this exceptional response Michelle. I agree with your post.  Regardless of the chosen health promotion model, health promotion is primarily dependent on the participation of the population in focus. Participation, the participation can be achieved through effective engagement and having a common interest in the program (Sharma, 2016). Nevertheless, participation alone is inadequate to help in empowering the target population and take best actions to live healthy lifestyles. Therefore, the health promotion approach should enhance the process of capacity building, ease needs assessment, and foster local action to stand a better opportunity to empower. However, if the model allocates the health provider more power to control the situation such as by setting the health promotion agendas or providing particular resources, the model may fail to empower the target population. Therefore, the health promotion model should strive to help people work collaboratively to get more control over the health and lives.


Sharma, M. (2016). Theoretical foundations of health education and health promotion. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.


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