Discussion: Capella University Reproduction and Genetics Lab Report
For this assignment, you will be participating in a lab activity on genetics by analyzing the pedigree chart and karyotype for two patients.
REPRODUCTION AND GENETICS
The reproductive systems of males and females are different but have the common goal of continuation of human species. We will look closely at the reproductive systems in males and females and inheritance of genes. Furthermore, we will explore genetic diseases in families and the concept of gene therapy for providing hope for genetically inherited disorders. Genetics can play a role in the traits that we inherit, but the environment around us can also impact our traits. We are born with a genetic code that is a culmination of genes from our parents and generations before us. Genetic diseases in families often are “hidden” if they are a recessive trait, such as cystic fibrosis or sickle-cell anemia. However, with the advances in science, gene therapy provides new hope for genetically inherited disorders like sickle-cell anemia.SHOW LESSHave you ever wanted to know more about where exactly you came from? It has never been easier to find out thanks to the explosion of at-home DNA testing kits. Millions of people have tried them, resulting in a great surge in popularity. Many new companies offer genetic testing, also known as DNA testing, which allows an individual to receive a genetic diagnosis of their vulnerabilities to inherited diseases. In general, this helps determine an individual’s ancestry or biological relationships between people. Read the articles to learn more information.
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View the Human Body Systems Organization infographic by selecting the system to learn how the reproductive system functions.Barclay, T. (2020, July 29). Female reproductive system. Innerbody Research. https://www.innerbody.com/image/repfov.html#full-descriptionBarclay, T. (2020, July 29). Male reproductive system. Innerbody Research. https://www.innerbody.com/image/repmov.html#full-descriptionKidsHealth. (n.d.). Prenatal genetic counseling. https://kidshealth.org/en/parents/genetic-counseli… the interactive media activity to learn more about genetics for your assessment, Genetics.Ireland, K. A. (2018). Visualizing human biology (5th ed.). John Wiley and Sons.
Chapter 19, “The Reproductive Systems: Maintaining the Species.” This chapter focuses on the male and female reproductive systems and the importance of estrogen and testosterone. It also describes the negative feedback loops that control the production of sperm in males and the menstrual cycle in females.
Seward, B. (2018). Direct-to-consumer genetic testing: Finding a clear path forward. Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science, 52(4), 482–488.
Rothstein, M. A. (2018). Time to end the use of genetic test results in life insurance underwriting. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 46(3), 794–801.
Spector-Bagdady, K. (2015). Reconceptualizing consent for direct-to-consumer health services. American Journal of Law & Medicine, 41(4), 568–616.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2019). Direct-to-consumer tests. https://www.fda.gov/medical-devices/vitro-diagnost…
Holt, L., & Gosk, S. (2018). The FDA approves the first at-home genetic test that can assess a woman’s risk for developing breast cancer. CQ Roll Call. http://library.capella.edu/login?qurl=https%3A%2F%…
Medline Plus. (2020, August 4). Karyotyping. https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003935.htm
Ireland, K. A. (2018). Visualizing human biology (5th ed.). John Wiley and Sons.
Chapter 21, “Inheritance, Genetics, and Molecular Biology.” In this chapter, you will learn more about gene expression and inheritance. What are main differences between males and females? Why do I look like my mom and grandma, but not my dad?
In addition, consider the work of the National Institutes of Health’s (NIH) National Genome Research Institute to prevent genetic discrimination: “Many Americans fear that participating in research or undergoing genetic testing will lead to being discriminated against based on their genetics. Such fears may dissuade patients from taking genomics-based clinical tests or volunteering to participate in the research necessary for the development of new tests, therapies, and cures. To address this, in 2008 the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA) was passed into law, prohibiting discrimination by employers and health insurers” (National Human Genome Research Institute, 2017).Find more about the NIH’s work as you read the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 that prohibits insurance companies and employers from genetic discrimination:
National Institute of Health: National Human Genome Research Institute. (2020). Genetic discrimination. https://www.genome.gov/about-genomics/policy-issue…
In this lab, you will analyze the pedigree chart and karyotype for two patients Kayla and Emily. A karyotype is a picture of stained chromosomes arranged to show chromosome pairs. Abnormalities in chromosome number or size can be easily identified in a karyotype. Pedigree charts give a symbolic representation of phenotypic (observable) traits through a family. Using a pedigree, researchers can trace the pathway of a disease through families:
If gene therapy was available to fix a gene before birth, do you think this might cross the lines of “unethical” research?
For this assessment, you will complete a series of responses within the lab, complete an assessment at the end of the lab, and write a brief summary of your conclusion about the lab.To complete this assessment:
Fill out the items requested in the lab.
Complete the assessment at the end of the lab.
Save a pdf of your responses and download it to your computer. You will have an option to download a pdf within the lab.
Write a one-paragraph summary detailing new knowledge acquired in the lab.
Attach both documents when submitting the assessment.
Make sure that you read the Homework: Genetics Lab Scoring Guide prior to submitting your assessments to ensure you have met all of the expectations for this assessment.It is recommended that you review the scoring guide prior to completing the la as most work will be completed within the lab.
Your summary should meet the following requirements:
Length: Submit one double-spaced page.
Written communication: Ensure written communication is free of errors that detract from the overall message.
Standard formatting: Include one-inch margins, appropriate headers, and a title page.
Font and font size: Use Times New Roman, 12-point font.
Note: If you use assistive technology or any alternative communication methods to participate in this activity, please contact DisabilityServices@Capella.edu with any access-related questions or to request accommodations.
Competency 1: Describe the organization of the human body.
Explain the inheritance of an autosomal recessive trait by reading a pedigree.
Explain the gender of the second patient in a lab scenario.
Explain the results of the karyotype and how the chromosomal abnormalities affect the body systems.
Explain the positive and negative ramifications of genetic testing.
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Your post addresses one of the most pertinent issues in the United States healthcare system. Nursing shortage is a major issue affecting delivery of healthcare in the United States. High rate of retirement, turn over, and shortage of qualified educators contribute to inadequately staffed facilities. I agree with you that due to shortage, employed nurses experience burnout since they have to work for long hours. However, the problem can be evaluated from multiple angles to appreciate the need for increased enrollment in training schools, recruitment, and mentorship. I would consider the plight of healthcare facilities amidst the shortage because they are compelled to stretch the existing workforce. Bakhamis et al. (2019) agree that in hospitals with high patient flow, nurses are assigned more patients, which contributes to burnout. In other words, even hospitals are overwhelmed by the issue.
Your post also makes an instrumental observation on the role of diminished mentorship on nursing shortage. Due to burnout and absenteeism, experienced practitioners have limited time to guide young nurses, which has a direct impact on the quality of healthcare services. A study conducted by de Cordova et al. (2022) to explore the magnitude of burnout revealed that after COVID-19, 36.5% of nurses were prepared to leave their occupations within a year. Deductively, the quality of training and mentorship will be affected further. Although some hospitals have began offering incentives for new nurses, as you have observed, the strategy is not sustainable without emphasizing increased enrollment in nursing schools. Ideally, the solution to the problem should have a long-term approach involving multiple stakeholders. Without adequate staffing, Americans will continue experiencing services that are not commensurate with the public expenditure on healthcare.
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