The case study demonstrates a 14-year-old female patient with several abnormal bruises and red splotches on her leg. The patient has been recovering from a bad case of mononucleosis as reported by her mother. She also has bleeding gums. The only abnormal lab findings during the visit were low platelet count and oozing of the venipuncture site. The patient was suspected of having immune thrombocytopenic purpura.
Factors Affecting Fertility (STDs)
The patient reports a history of mononucleosis whose main cause is Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) which is associated with infertility among female teenagers. Studies show that the Epstein-Barr virus with infectious mononucleosis can potentially trigger ovarian failure leading to infertility among childbearing women (Virant-Klun & Vogler, 2018).
Why inflammatory markers rise in STD/PID
Studies show that viral infections such as EBV can trigger an inflammatory series of reactions that indices the adaptive immune system including the effector mechanism to try and clear the infection (Carty et al., 2021). Evidence demonstrates elevated levels of inflammatory markers such as IL-18, CRP, and interferon-γ (IFNγ) in EBV infection.
Prostatitis and Infection
Prostatitis is the inflammation of the prostate gland that can result from a bacterial infection. When the infectious microorganism migrates from the reproductive system to the prostate gland, inflammation occurs leading to a systemic reaction resulting in symptoms such as fever, malaise, and chills (Lupo & Ingersoll, 2019).
Splenectomy and ITP Diagnosis
In patients with ITP, their immune system normally destroys platelets just like foreign bodies. The spleen plays a significant role in removing the destroyed platelets from the body (Chaturvedi et al., 2018). As such removing the spleen will help maintain an adequate number of platelets circulating in the body.
Anemia can be defined as a hematological condition characterized by reduced hemoglobin levels leading to impaired delivery of oxygen to body tissues. Anemia can be classified by the RBC average site as macrocytic anemia (MCV >100), macrocytic anemia (MCV >100), and normocytic anemia (MCV 80 – 100) (Newhall et al., 2020).
Carty, M., Guy, C., & Bowie, A. G. (2021). Detection of viral infections by innate immunity. Biochemical pharmacology, 183, 114316.
Chaturvedi, S., Arnold, D. M., & McCrae, K. R. (2018). Splenectomy for immune thrombocytopenia: down but not out. Blood, The Journal of the American Society of Hematology, 131(11), 1172-1182.
Lupo, F., & Ingersoll, M. A. (2019). Is bacterial prostatitis a urinary tract infection? Nature Reviews Urology, 16(4), 203-204. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41585-019-0150-1
Newhall, D. A., Oliver, R., & Lugthart, S. (2020). Anemia: A disease or symptom. Neth. J. Med, 78, 104-110. https://www.njmonline.nl/getpdf.php?t=i&id=234#page=13
Virant-Klun, I., & Vogler, A. (2018). In vitro maturation of oocytes from excised ovarian tissue in a patient with autoimmune ovarian insufficiency possibly associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, 16(1), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12958-018-0350-1