Assignment: PSYC4100 Capella University Textartificial Intelligence & Behaviorism HW

Assignment: PSYC4100 Capella University Textartificial Intelligence & Behaviorism HW

Question Description
Donald Broadbent, one of the first psychologists to use a flow-chart model, used that approach to develop a model of:
a. Language acquisition.
b. Long-term memory.
c. Selective attention.
d. Artificial intelligence.
5 points

The statement that “the whole is different from the sum of its parts” is associated with which school of psychology?
a. Behaviorism.
b. Psychoanalysis.
c. Gestalt psychology.
d. Functionalism.
5 points

Which one of the following characterizes Gestalt psychology?
a. Wholism and nativism.
b. A focus on S-R connections.
c. Processing experience at a molecular level.
d. Environmentalism and reductionism.
5 points

George Miller is best known for an article he wrote that defined the capacity for short-term memory (also called working memory). According to Miller that capacity is:
a. Variable, depending on a person’s verbal intelligence.
b. Unlimited.
c. Variable, depending on how much practice a person has with memory improvement techniques.
d. Seven, plus or minus two.
5 points

A phenomenological approach to psychology means that:
a. Environmental factors are emphasized.
b. Unconscious factors play a large role in determining behavior.
c. Explanations are likely to draw from nativistic causes.
d. Experience is studied just as it occurs.
5 points

The Gestalt psychologists proposed the existence of innate cognitive structures that they called:
a. Phi formations.
b. Organizing tendencies
c. Insight templates.
d. Deep processors.
5 points

In Köhler’s chimp studies, he believed that successful problem solving was the result of the chimp:
a. Being so desperately hungry that it had to solve the problem in order to eat.
b. Seeing the problem as a whole.
c. Seeing another chimp solve the problem.
d. Engaging in a number of trial and error attempts before getting the correct solution.
5 points

The Zeigarnik effect refers to the fact that:
a. Similar items are usually grouped together.
b. Wholes are more easily introspected than parts.
c. Items at the end of a list are best recalled.
d. Uncompleted tasks are better remembered.
5 points

The demonstration of apparent movement that is regarded as the birth of Gestalt psychology was about:
a. The spiral aftereffect.
b. The phi phenomenon.
c. The autokinetic effect.
d. Induced motion.
5 points

Many of psychology’s earliest pioneers, such as Wilhelm Wundt, William James, Hermann Ebbinghaus, and Edward Titchener, could all be described as cognitive psychologists. But their brand of psychology mostly disappeared in America for a 50-year period because:
a. Of the influence of Darwinian ideas that emphasized a focus on learning.
b. They were too closely tied to philosophical questions.
c. Their research methods were found to be inaccurate.
d. Their ideas were too closely aligned with the psychoanalytic theory.
5 points

Noting how rapidly a first language is learned and the way in which language is learned across nationalities, Chomsky posited the existence of a language acquisition device, which he said:
a. Developed in the first year of an infant’s life.
b. Was structured differently for different languages.
c. Was innate.
d. Operated by rewards and punishers in language learning.
5 points

Which of the following statements about cognitive psychology is true?
a. It is the largest of the areas of experimental psychology.
b. It focuses primarily on observable behaviors and does not purport to study mental processes.
c. It has largely eliminated behaviorism from American psychology.
d. Its primary emphasis is on the neurological underpinnings of cognitive behavior.
5 points

Being able to explain linear sequences, such as how words are ordered in a sentence, was what Karl Lashley referred to as the problem of:
a. Syntax.
b. Categorization.
c. Serial order.
d. Linguistic form.
5 points

The rebirth of American cognitive psychology in the 1950s was due principally to:
a. The recognition that the psychology of behaviorism was too limiting.
b. Realization that the subjects studied by the behaviorists were of little importance in understanding human functioning.
c. An infusion of ideas from France and Germany.
d. The invention of the computer and the new research methods it afforded.
5 points

Which of the following comprises the field of cognitive psychology?
a. Study of the relationships between mind and brain.
b. Study of such processes as thinking, memory, and perception.
c. Study of the unconscious processes that can account for behavior.
d. Study of the physiological and endocrinological influences on behavior.
5 points

Ulric Neisser’s 1967 book on cognitive psychology:
a. Criticized modern cognitive psychology for its failure to develop methods that were truly scientific.
b. Invented the concept of schema, a critical development for the field.
c. Called for a strictly behavioristic approach to the study of cognitions.
d. Is said to have given the field of cognitive psychology its name.
5 points

Cognitive frameworks that organize past experiences related to particular concepts are called:
a. Templates.
b. Schema.
c. Constructions.
d. Patterns.
5 points

Frederic Bartlett’s research using the story of The War of the Ghosts convinced him that:
a. Memory involved construction, not just reconstruction.
b. Cultural factors were the major determinants in perception.
c. Cognitive factors were key to the utility of intelligence.
d. Learning rarely occurred in the absence of reinforcement.
5 points

Allen Newell and Herbert Simon are important in the history of cognitive psychology because of their pioneering development of the field known as:
a. Transformational grammar.
b. Heuristics.
c. Ecological memory.
d. Artificial intelligence.
5 points

Noam Chomsky’s research on surface and deep structures in sentences was critical for his development of:
a. Psycholinguistics.
b. Transformational grammar.
c. Artificial intelligence.
d. Syntax.

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