Assignment: PSYC4100 Capella University Textartificial Intelligence & Behaviorism HW
Donald Broadbent, one of the first psychologists to use a flow-chart model, used that approach to develop a model of:
a. Language acquisition.
b. Long-term memory.
c. Selective attention.
d. Artificial intelligence.
The statement that “the whole is different from the sum of its parts” is associated with which school of psychology?
c. Gestalt psychology.
Which one of the following characterizes Gestalt psychology?
a. Wholism and nativism.
b. A focus on S-R connections.
c. Processing experience at a molecular level.
d. Environmentalism and reductionism.
George Miller is best known for an article he wrote that defined the capacity for short-term memory (also called working memory). According to Miller that capacity is:
a. Variable, depending on a person’s verbal intelligence.
c. Variable, depending on how much practice a person has with memory improvement techniques.
d. Seven, plus or minus two.
A phenomenological approach to psychology means that:
a. Environmental factors are emphasized.
b. Unconscious factors play a large role in determining behavior.
c. Explanations are likely to draw from nativistic causes.
d. Experience is studied just as it occurs.
The Gestalt psychologists proposed the existence of innate cognitive structures that they called:
a. Phi formations.
b. Organizing tendencies
c. Insight templates.
d. Deep processors.
In Köhler’s chimp studies, he believed that successful problem solving was the result of the chimp:
a. Being so desperately hungry that it had to solve the problem in order to eat.
b. Seeing the problem as a whole.
c. Seeing another chimp solve the problem.
d. Engaging in a number of trial and error attempts before getting the correct solution.
The Zeigarnik effect refers to the fact that:
a. Similar items are usually grouped together.
b. Wholes are more easily introspected than parts.
c. Items at the end of a list are best recalled.
d. Uncompleted tasks are better remembered.
The demonstration of apparent movement that is regarded as the birth of Gestalt psychology was about:
a. The spiral aftereffect.
b. The phi phenomenon.
c. The autokinetic effect.
d. Induced motion.
Many of psychology’s earliest pioneers, such as Wilhelm Wundt, William James, Hermann Ebbinghaus, and Edward Titchener, could all be described as cognitive psychologists. But their brand of psychology mostly disappeared in America for a 50-year period because:
a. Of the influence of Darwinian ideas that emphasized a focus on learning.
b. They were too closely tied to philosophical questions.
c. Their research methods were found to be inaccurate.
d. Their ideas were too closely aligned with the psychoanalytic theory.
Noting how rapidly a first language is learned and the way in which language is learned across nationalities, Chomsky posited the existence of a language acquisition device, which he said:
a. Developed in the first year of an infant’s life.
b. Was structured differently for different languages.
c. Was innate.
d. Operated by rewards and punishers in language learning.
Which of the following statements about cognitive psychology is true?
a. It is the largest of the areas of experimental psychology.
b. It focuses primarily on observable behaviors and does not purport to study mental processes.
c. It has largely eliminated behaviorism from American psychology.
d. Its primary emphasis is on the neurological underpinnings of cognitive behavior.
Being able to explain linear sequences, such as how words are ordered in a sentence, was what Karl Lashley referred to as the problem of:
c. Serial order.
d. Linguistic form.
The rebirth of American cognitive psychology in the 1950s was due principally to:
a. The recognition that the psychology of behaviorism was too limiting.
b. Realization that the subjects studied by the behaviorists were of little importance in understanding human functioning.
c. An infusion of ideas from France and Germany.
d. The invention of the computer and the new research methods it afforded.
Which of the following comprises the field of cognitive psychology?
a. Study of the relationships between mind and brain.
b. Study of such processes as thinking, memory, and perception.
c. Study of the unconscious processes that can account for behavior.
d. Study of the physiological and endocrinological influences on behavior.
Ulric Neisser’s 1967 book on cognitive psychology:
a. Criticized modern cognitive psychology for its failure to develop methods that were truly scientific.
b. Invented the concept of schema, a critical development for the field.
c. Called for a strictly behavioristic approach to the study of cognitions.
d. Is said to have given the field of cognitive psychology its name.
Cognitive frameworks that organize past experiences related to particular concepts are called:
Frederic Bartlett’s research using the story of The War of the Ghosts convinced him that:
a. Memory involved construction, not just reconstruction.
b. Cultural factors were the major determinants in perception.
c. Cognitive factors were key to the utility of intelligence.
d. Learning rarely occurred in the absence of reinforcement.
Allen Newell and Herbert Simon are important in the history of cognitive psychology because of their pioneering development of the field known as:
a. Transformational grammar.
c. Ecological memory.
d. Artificial intelligence.
Noam Chomsky’s research on surface and deep structures in sentences was critical for his development of:
b. Transformational grammar.
c. Artificial intelligence.
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Your post addresses one of the most pertinent issues in the United States healthcare system. Nursing shortage is a major issue affecting delivery of healthcare in the United States. High rate of retirement, turn over, and shortage of qualified educators contribute to inadequately staffed facilities. I agree with you that due to shortage, employed nurses experience burnout since they have to work for long hours. However, the problem can be evaluated from multiple angles to appreciate the need for increased enrollment in training schools, recruitment, and mentorship. I would consider the plight of healthcare facilities amidst the shortage because they are compelled to stretch the existing workforce. Bakhamis et al. (2019) agree that in hospitals with high patient flow, nurses are assigned more patients, which contributes to burnout. In other words, even hospitals are overwhelmed by the issue.
Your post also makes an instrumental observation on the role of diminished mentorship on nursing shortage. Due to burnout and absenteeism, experienced practitioners have limited time to guide young nurses, which has a direct impact on the quality of healthcare services. A study conducted by de Cordova et al. (2022) to explore the magnitude of burnout revealed that after COVID-19, 36.5% of nurses were prepared to leave their occupations within a year. Deductively, the quality of training and mentorship will be affected further. Although some hospitals have began offering incentives for new nurses, as you have observed, the strategy is not sustainable without emphasizing increased enrollment in nursing schools. Ideally, the solution to the problem should have a long-term approach involving multiple stakeholders. Without adequate staffing, Americans will continue experiencing services that are not commensurate with the public expenditure on healthcare.
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