Assignment: Module 7 Catechol Hallucinogens Questions
Name three drugs that in 1931 Lewin referred to as being in a class of phantastica.
Barstow Community College have important differences in chemical structures, their known pharmacological properties, how much loss of awareness occurs and how dangerous they are. What are the two major classes’ phantastica?
- Describe Indole Hallucinogens.
- Who was Frank Olson?
- Define Synesthesia.
- Define Psilocybin.
- What is DMT?
- List at least 5 Catechol Hallucinogens and tell what each one might do if ingested one way or another.
- Who would use MDMA & why?
- Anticholinergic Hallucinogens include……?
- What is PCP & Angel Dust?
- What are the major differences between C. sativa and C. indica?
- What is THC?
- What year did the Marijuana Tax Act come into effect?
- Who was Harry Anslinger and how did his writings come to be called a “pyramid of prejudice”?
- What were the general conclusions of the 1944 LaGuardia Commission?
- What is a cannabinoid?
- How is the action of THC in the brain terminated after about 30,minutes when the half life of metabolism is much longer than that?
- What are the two most consistent physiological effects of smoking marijuana?
- Is there evidence that shows marijuana interferes with reproduction?
The term “hallucinogen” has come to describe LSD and related compounds based on the supposition that these drugs elicit hallucinations, but it has been argued that, at the doses commonly taken recreationally, frank hallucinations are produced only rarely
. Nevertheless, other designations for this class of drugs (for example, psychedelics, psychotomimetics, entheogens, etc.) have not necessarily caught on, and so we will use the term hallucinogen to refer to these compounds, despite the controversy surrounding the appropriateness of this appellation. As a drug category, hallucinogens are typically accepted to encompass an enormous range of pharmacological substances, with mechanisms of action ranging from cannabinoid agonism (i.e., Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol), N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonism (i.e., phencyclidine), muscarinic receptor antagonism (i.e., scopolamine), κ opioid agonism (i.e., salvinorin A), mixed action monoamine release (i.e., 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]), and more. Thus, within the confines of this review, we will use the term hallucinogen to denote compounds with pharmacological effects similar to three prototypical drugs: 3,4,5-trimethoxy-phenethylamine (mescaline, Figure 1, A.), N,N-dimethyl-4-phosphoryloxytryptamine (psilocybin, Figure 1, B.) and LSD (Figure 1, C.). All of these drugs function as agonists at 5-HT2A receptors, and much work has culminated in the widespread acceptance that this particular receptor initiates the molecular mechanisms responsible for the unique effects of these compounds. Much of that work will be reviewed herein.
The aim of this review is to mark the sea change which seems to be occurring within the field of hallucinogen research. Until very recently, comparatively few scientists were studying these particular compounds, perhaps due to their unfortunate association with somewhat less than rigorous research techniques. In Nichols’ recent review , for example, prominent clinicians are quoted as stating that the effects of hallucinogens transcend pharmacology, are unpredictable, and border on the mystical. Nevertheless, the state of hallucinogen research is now approaching something of a high water mark. Selective antagonists are available for relevant serotonergic receptors, the majority of which have now been cloned, allowing for reasonably thorough pharmacological investigation. Animal models sensitive to hallucinogen-like effects have been established and exploited to yield a wealth of largely concordant data. Along similar lines, sophisticated genetic techniques have enabled the development of mutant mice, which have proven useful in the study of hallucinogens. Finally, the capacity to study post-receptor signaling events has lead to the proposal of a plausible mechanism of action for these compounds. The tools currently available to study the hallucinogens are thus more plentiful and scientifically advanced than were those accessible to earlier researchers studying the opioids, benzodiazepines, cholinergics, or other centrally active compounds. Those interested in hallucinogen research should thus be encouraged by all of these recent developments, and it is hoped that the perceived “scientific respectability” of the field will continue to increase.
Important information for writing discussion questions and participation
Welcome to class
Hello class and welcome to the class and I will be your instructor for this course. This is a -week course and requires a lot of time commitment, organization, and a high level of dedication. Please use the class syllabus to guide you through all the assignments required for the course. I have also attached the classroom policies to this announcement to know your expectations for this course. Please review this document carefully and ask me any questions if you do. You could email me at any time or send me a message via the “message” icon in halo if you need to contact me. I check my email regularly, so you should get a response within 24 hours. If you have not heard from me within 24 hours and need to contact me urgently, please send a follow up text to
I strongly encourage that you do not wait until the very last minute to complete your assignments. Your assignments in weeks 4 and 5 require early planning as you would need to present a teaching plan and interview a community health provider. I advise you look at the requirements for these assignments at the beginning of the course and plan accordingly. I have posted the YouTube link that explains all the class assignments in detail. It is required that you watch this 32-minute video as the assignments from week 3 through 5 require that you follow the instructions to the letter to succeed. Failure to complete these assignments according to instructions might lead to a zero. After watching the video, please schedule a one-on-one with me to discuss your topic for your project by the second week of class. Use this link to schedule a 15-minute session. Please, call me at the time of your appointment on my number. Please note that I will NOT call you.
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Plagiarism is highly prohibited. Please ensure you are citing your sources correctly using APA 7th edition. All assignments including discussion posts should be formatted in APA with the appropriate spacing, font, margin, and indents. Any papers not well formatted would be returned back to you, hence, I advise you review APA formatting style. I have attached a sample paper in APA format and will also post sample discussion responses in subsequent announcements.
Your initial discussion post should be a minimum of 200 words and response posts should be a minimum of 150 words. Be advised that I grade based on quality and not necessarily the number of words you post. A minimum of TWO references should be used for your initial post. For your response post, you do not need references as personal experiences would count as response posts. If you however cite anything from the literature for your response post, it is required that you cite your reference. You should include a minimum of THREE references for papers in this course. Please note that references should be no more than 5 years old except recommended as a resource for the class. Furthermore, for each discussion board question, you need ONE initial substantive response and TWO substantive responses to either your classmates or your instructor for a total of THREE responses. There are TWO discussion questions each week, hence, you need a total minimum of SIX discussion posts for each week. I usually post a discussion question each week. You could also respond to these as it would count towards your required SIX discussion posts for the week.
I understand this is a lot of information to cover in 5 weeks, however, the Bible says in Philippians 4:13 that we can do all things through Christ that strengthens us. Even in times like this, we are encouraged by God’s word that we have that ability in us to succeed with His strength. I pray that each and every one of you receives strength for this course and life generally as we navigate through this pandemic that is shaking our world today. Relax and enjoy the course!
Please read through the following information on writing a Discussion question response and participation posts.
Contact me if you have any questions.
Important information on Writing a Discussion Question
- Your response needs to be a minimum of 150 words (not including your list of references)
- There needs to be at least TWO references with ONE being a peer reviewed professional journal article.
- Include in-text citations in your response
- Do not include quotes—instead summarize and paraphrase the information
- Follow APA-7th edition
- Points will be deducted if the above is not followed
Participation –replies to your classmates or instructor
- A minimum of 6 responses per week, on at least 3 days of the week.
- Each response needs at least ONE reference with citations—best if it is a peer reviewed journal article
- Each response needs to be at least 75 words in length (does not include your list of references)
- Responses need to be substantive by bringing information to the discussion or further enhance the discussion. Responses of “I agree” or “great post” does not count for the word count.
- Follow APA 7th edition
- Points will be deducted if the above is not followed
- Remember to use and follow APA-7th edition for all weekly assignments, discussion questions, and participation points.
- Here are some helpful links
- The is a great resource